Matthew Calbraith Perry
| US Postal Service honors
|1953 FDC, Cachet by Ken Boll for Cachet Craft covers.
Matthew C. Perry was born in Newport, Rhode Island, on 10 April
1794, son of Captain Christopher R. Perry, a distinguished officer of the Revolutionary War, and Sarah Wallace (Alexander)
Perry. In 1814 he was married to Jan Sliddell, and they had ten children.(Which is a feat in it self)
in 1809, he first saw service under his brother, Oliver Hazard Perry. During the War of 1812, he served in squadrons commanded
by Commodores Rodgers and Decatur and was promoted to Lieutenant in 1813. He made several cruises to the coast of Africa and
to the Mediterranean, and commanded the schooner Shark in the West Indies. He was promoted to master commandant in 1826 and
named a captain eleven years later. From 1838 to 1840 he commanded the steam frigate Fulton in connection with experiments
in steam navigation. During the Mexican War, he joined the Home Squadron in the Gulf of Mexico in 1846, and conducted several
expeditions against the towns of Tobasco and Laguna. In March 1847 he succeeded Commodore Connor in command of the squadron,
which was then engaged in the besiege of Vera Cruz. 1849-1852, after which he sailed for the East Indies on a cruise which
became memorable in the annals of the U.S. Navy, When on 8 July 1853, he unexpectedly appeared in Tokyo Bay with two
steam frigates and two sloops-of-war. He declined to deal with minor officials, flatly refused to obey directions to go to
Nagasaki ), dispersed the swarms of guard-boats surrounding the squadron by threatening the use of force, and deliberately
disregarded a prohibition against taking soundings. He insisted upon presenting to a high official on shore, a letter from
President Fillmore addressed to the Japanese Emperor. This was reluctantly agreed to by uneasy Japanese. On 14 July the steam
frigates Susquehanna and Mississippi moved close to the shore and landed 400 seamen and marines. The Commodore followed with
special attendants, and presented his documents very formally to the Princes Iduzu and Iwami. They gave him a receipt.
Three days later Perry sailed away leaving word that he would return for an answer. After
seven months he entered the bay again, and with a much more powerful squadron. His reception was most cordial, gifts and entertainments
were exchanged, and the treaty was negotiated, opening two ports to American commerce. He concluded the treaty which opened
the ports to American enterprise. His success in establishing good relations with Japan can be attributed to his combining
diplomacy with dignity and a bold display of impressive force.
Commodore Perry returned to Washington and
was on special duty in the Navy Department for several years, connected with his expedition to Japan. He died in New York
City, on 4 March 1858, and was interred in the vaults of the Church of St. Mark's-in-the-Bouwerie in New York. On 21 March
1866, the bodies of Commodore Perry and his daughter Anna who died in 1839, were reinterred in Newport, Rhode Island.
USS Commodore Perry, a side-wheel steamer purchased
in 1861, was named in honor of Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry and his brother Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry. Three other
warships were named Perry in honor of both men; DD-844 was the last, the others being DD-11 (a pre-WWI destroyer) and DMS-17
(a minesweeper converted from the destroyer DD-340). Two other warships were named solely for Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry,
a brig commissioned in 1843 and FFG-7.